Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Debate of Integration into Classrooms - 1186 Words

Introduction The subject of integrating children with disability into regular classrooms has been the epicenter of debate among scholars and practitioners in the special education industry. This owes to the reality that authors like Berg (2004) and Cassady (2011) made publications on the topic in question. It is critical that the integration of physically and mentally disabled children into regular classes is a transforming global issue that must be subjected to various applications and interpretations. In fact, Cassady (2011) asserts that the idea of integrating students with disabilities into regular classrooms causes controversy among administrators, teachers, and parents. This topic is controversial because some scholars believe that all students qualify to attend regular classrooms while other scholars argue that only those students that can maintain identified rates of academic progress should attend regular classrooms. The idea of integrating children with disabilities into regular classes has been implemented in several nationalities. For instance, in the United States of America, seventy percent of children with disabilities spent forty percent of their day in public schools. The integration of students with disabilities (in the United States) was made possible by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Winter and O’Raw, 2010). Consequently, other nations emulated America because the same author affirms that all European Union countries have theShow MoreRelatedTechnology Is The Most Useful Source Of Information For Gathering Any Type Of Materials1067 Words   |  5 Pagesinformation inside the classroom. Leanna brooks states in here article about Challenges, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Instructional Technology in the Community College Classroom that, â€Å"Technology use ï ¬ nds itself woven into an almost daily educational discourse and debate. It is relatively ea sy to forget that computer use in education is a relatively new phenomenon that has evolved to widespread use only within the last 20 years. Teachers began to have more control over classroom technology use withRead MoreIntegrating Technology into the Classroom Essays1551 Words   |  7 PagesIntegrating Technology into the Classroom Technology is gradually changing our society; there is no doubt about that. If told ten years ago that students had the capabilities of having a robot for a teacher, one might laugh or suggest a new Hollywood movie. Now a days, this, along with many other advancements, can be a reality. Technology has added many benefits such as allowing students easy access to new information, offering a portable and affordable solution for textbooks and has even beenRead MoreHow Technology Can Make A Younger Student995 Words   |  4 Pagesthere’s anything to be worked upon. If the teacher introduces this practice in the classroom, it will be a new tool for the students. There are a multitude of programs, applications, and websites that provides extra practice and explanations in an interactive way. In another case study done in Belgium, a student is quoted on how their teacher â€Å"made an interactive course with links to websites and movies† (Montrieux 9). Especially with the subject of mathematics, there are math games that can makeRead MoreImpact Of Middle School Principal Leadership On The Schools1210 Words   |  5 PagesThis study examined the impact of middle school principal leadership on the integration of technology in selected middle schools within the Indianapolis Public School District. According to D. Crenshaw Director oflnformational Technology, the Indianapolis Public School District has invested millions of dollars in an attempt to implement technology into the classrooms of selective middle schools within its school district in order to enhance the overall education of inner city students (personal communicationRead MoreGifted Segregation vs. Integration Essay1102 Words   |  5 Pages Recently, a major debate between education boards nationwide has been receiving a lot of attention because of the impact it could potentially have on our current system of education. The debate centers around the issue of segregated versus integrated classrooms and whether or not separate classes for gifted students are necessary to be implement in schools across America. Typically, in integrated classrooms students who are classified as â€Å"gifted† will be working in and among the â€Å"average† studentsRead MoreExamining the Social Interactions of the Inclusion Classroom: A Grounded Theory1424 Words   |  6 PagesExamining the Social Interactions of the Inclusion Classroom: A Grounded Theory HIED 595 Texas AM University-Commerce Examining the Social Interactions of the Elementary Inclusion Classroom: A Grounded Theory Inclusion has been one of the main focuses in the field of special education for the past two decades. Students with disabilities are being integrated in the general education classrooms at a steady pace. With the focus being on inclusionRead MoreThe Importance of Technology to 21st Century Learners Essay912 Words   |  4 Pagesswept through in recent years improved teaching and learning in the classroom? Utilizing various research tools such as Boise State Universitys Albertsons Library database, Google Scholar, and other online tools to access peer-reviewed journals, this paper will demonstrate that technology in the classroom results in increased student performance. great intro, Evan. -Barbara Schroeder 5/6/10 7:51 AM Technology in the Classroom Technology already plays a huge role in the lives of studentsRead MoreThe Impact Of Media And Instructional Technology On Student Learning919 Words   |  4 PagesTechnology on Student Learning There have been many debates, among researchers, in the past on technology and the impact that it has on learning. However, there is one debate that, after over nearly two decades, is still being discussed to this day. The debate of Clark-Kozma has been of great significance to researchers in the past and present. As new and improved technology is introduced, many researchers have focused their study on this debate to prove or disprove the findings of Richard ClarkRead MoreWhat Makes A School Great? Essay1165 Words   |  5 Pagesschool great? Could it be the integration with technology? How about the records of its sports teams? Many schools consider these aspects before anything else when making plans to advance their schools; however, there is more to a school than its athletics and technology. It really depends on the school’s way of teaching the students, and how the students approach education. Columbia City High School must emphasize academics through activities such as Speech and Debate, de-emphasize athletics throughRead MoreThe Arts Is An Essential Element Of Education1245 Words   |  5 Pagesdebilitating losses on faculty and programs. Arts programs are sometimes eliminated by school administrators and boards of education without much anguish or serious debate, as if they are dispensable and unimportant, inconsequential and superfluous† (Fowler, 1996, p. 36). So why not integrate the arts into the curriculum? â€Å"Arts integration is the investigation of curricular content through artistic explorations. In this process, the arts provide an avenue for rigorous investigation, representation

Monday, May 11, 2020

Tattoos on the Heart Success Essay - 1808 Words

Gregory Boyle begins chapter eight: â€Å"Success with a few questions that seem so simplistic at first glance. What is success and what is failure? What is good and what is bad? Setback or progress?† (Boyle 167). Taking a few moments to process these questions, one realizes that the question is quite complex and difficult. Success has such a subjective definition that it can only be defined by the one who answers the question of â€Å"what is success to you?† and has no universal definition. Specifically with gang members, success in the context of their lives is about personal growth and less about tangible results. â€Å"Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will†¦show more content†¦Just like the questions Boyle proposed at the beginning of the chapter; there was difficulty in making a connection between the death of a child and the idea of success. With further evalu ation it became evident that success was not in what happened, but what did not happen. It is safe to assume that the majority of people would consider the death of a child a failure, but the majority of people fail to look past this isolated event. The gang members were ready to claim vengeance as theirs and continue the cycle of pain, death, and violence. But because of a tragedy stricken mother the cycle was broken right then and there. The breaking of this negative downward spiral is a success in its own right. Another mother would not need to receive the news of her son being shot, another confused gang member would not end up in the penitentiary system, and another child would not be left fatherless. Just as every cloud has its silver lining; unfathomable sadness has positive aspects within itself. Mark Torres, S.J., beloved spiritual guide at Homeboy Industries, says, â€Å"We see in the homies what they don’t see in themselves, until they do† (Boyle 178). The g ang members hold within themselves a poisonous shame that corrupts their sense of self. Without a sense of self it is tremendously difficult to move forward and people tend to stay stuck in what they know. Homeboy IndustriesShow MoreRelatedTattoos in the work place700 Words   |  3 Pages Tattoos in the work place Today in America there is less problems having tattoos in the work place. As tattoos proliferate, some employers’ are becoming more accepting of body ink peeking through work place attire but the level of acceptance varies depending the industry and the corporate cultural. The work force is more interested in your educational skills and skills for the job. Tattoo policies can vary from one office to the next the argument being that tattoos and certain hairRead MoreEssay on Tattoos and Society1064 Words   |  5 PagesTattoos are created by inserting colored materials beneath the skins surface. The skin is penetrated with a sharp tool. Today colored ink and an electric needle are the material and instrument of choice. Today the practice is popular with a vast cross section of the population. Within the United States tattoos can be found on individuals ranging from gang member to fashion models. The word tattoo comes from the Tahitian word tatu which means to mark something. It is arguably claimed thatRead MoreMovie Review : Chinatown And The Girl With The Dragon 875 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"Chinatown† and â€Å"The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo† Noir (noir means black in French) is a style which was frequently seen in 1940-1950s film mostly consisting of crime, sex and fiction. Modern motion pictures use the same genre, but updated visual, theme and content. Neo-noir, Greek term neo means new, making term new black. Noir movies are very popular among the audiences. Chinatown (1974) directed by Roman Polanski, starring Jack Nicholson (Protagonist) as Jake Gittes, FayeRead MoreTattoos Should Be Allowed in the Workplace Essay1507 Words   |  7 Pageshaving a tattoo could ruin every hope one has of getting the job. One may ask, â€Å"why does having a tattoo ruin ones chance of getting a job?† A tattoo would ruin one’s chances at getting a job simply because it is wrongly viewed as unprofessional. Starting off as juices and markings, tattoos were nothing more than ways of identification and personalization. Rubbing juices extracted from plants onto your face and arms is the most notable to people. Also using bone needles and pigments to tattoo in aRead MoreAnalysis Of Tattoos On The Heart1095 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Dream In Tattoos on the Heart, by Gregory Boyle, he describes the insecurity of gangs, violence, father wound, and crisis that the prisoners went through when they got out of jail. Boyle runs Homeboy Industries thats located in the Boyle Heights neighborhood in Los Angeles, which was made to help gangs, and fresh out of prison parolees who want to improve their lives. They are not able to get jobs because their appearance gained financial and family insecurity. â€Å"Just assume the answerRead MoreLady Gaga By Stefani Joanne Jolie Germanotta1383 Words   |  6 PagesAngelina Germanotta, Lady Gaga, was born on March 28th, 1986. She is a renowned American songwriter, actress, and singer. She was born and raised in a Catholic family residing at Manhattan’s Upper West Side. Lady Gaga went to Convent of the Sacred Heart, an all-girls private Roman Catholic school. She later joined CAP21 before dropping out of the school, at the age of 19 to pursue her music career. She describes her ac ademic years as being full of dedication, studious and discipline. These are theRead MoreDisney Gets It Right : Moana The Way Finder1088 Words   |  5 PagesC., 2016). However, the small bouts of comedy do not compare to the amount of adventure Maui and Moana encounter throughout their voyage. Scenes ranging from Maui stealing the heart of Te Fiti, a goddess who holds the power of life and creation; to Moana battling the Kakamora pirates for the safe return of Te Fiti’s heart, grip the audience with excitement and anticipation (Lasseter et al, 2016). These cliffhanging scenes evoke an adventurous spirit for â€Å"kids† ages one through ninety-nine. Well,Read MoreWedding Crashers769 Words   |  4 Pagesthe party. At one wedding Jeremy sees a woman and says tattoo on the lower back, might as well be a bull s-eye. He is targeting this woman just because she has a tattoo on her back, he doesn t know her personality yet but thinks as her as being easy and a sex symbol. John uses cheesy lines to trick and deceive women at the wedding. You know how they say we only use ten percent of our brains; I think we only use ten percent of our hearts, is one line he used on a lady. Telling them lies to getRead MoreHow Gangs And Their Social Meshwork1661 Words   |  7 Pagesand analyzing gangs and their social meshwork, it is without a doubt that gangs are seen by the majority as social pests in the community. As a whole, these numerous gangs throughout the country are more than just a bunch of criminals covered in tattoos, they are people, with feelings, who just need positivity in their lives. Most gang members, living in impoverish conditions, grew up in households were they were abused, unloved, and neglected. They grow up with no positive social support and becomeRead MoreAfter Information On Permanent Cosmetics990 Words   |  4 Pagesit is an exciting and growing industry. Electrologists, aestheticians, nurses, tattoo artists, cosmetologists and phys icians are among the diverse group who have added this specialty to their portfolio of services. Because of this rapidly growing field there are a wide range of optional training. If doing any of these training it should be closely reviewed as this can be an expensive investment in your future. Success in this industry is directly related to the quality and amount of training that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay A Visit to the Zoo Free Essays

A Visit to the Zoo Zoo is a place where all sorts of tame and wild animals are kept. There are birds and beasts which tell us about the flora and fauna of our country as well as foreign countries. It is in this respect a giver of knowledge and information. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay: A Visit to the Zoo or any similar topic only for you Order Now Delhi zoo is housed in the Purana Kila on the Mathura Road. It has a fine and rare collection of birds and animals from all parts of the world. The zoo is spread over several acres of land. The birds and animals are kept, as far as possible, in their natural surroundings. There is a moat encircling the enclosures of wild animals so that they might not escape. One day I went to the zoo in the company of some of my friends. We bought tickets at the gate, and entered the zoo. First we came upon the enclosure where water fowls were swimming in water. The ducks and drakes were swimming and picking up things thrown to them. We enjoyed their playful antics for some time and moved on. Next we came to the enclosure of the wild animals. There were lions, tigers, and leopards belonging to different countries. The Gir lion of India seemed to be most ferocious. The enclosures smelt of meat, provided to them everyday. In another enclosure were the monkeys. They too, were of several varieties. The ape with a black face seemed to be the most mischievous. He was all the time grinning at the onlookers. The visitors threw parched grams to the monkeys and they seemed to relish it. At a small distance we saw a peacock. It was dancing. I ran to that side. The peacock seemed td be unmindful of the presence of the crowd. Closeby was an enclosure for the deer. It covered a vast area and the deer were roaming about freely- Near to the enclosure we saw a buffalo-like animal. It was the rhino munching some maize plants. It looked dreadful with its sharp horn on the nose. The sight of the rhino at once reminded me of the adventure of Colonel White as given in our text-book of English. On our way back we saw some elephants. They were being used for a joy-ride on payment. Lastly, we saw the covered enclosures where birds were flying about. They were of different colours and shapes. Now it was getting dark. The bell rang and we came out. The visit to the zoo added a good deal to our knowledge of birds and beasts. How to cite Essay: A Visit to the Zoo, Essays

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Synthesis and Purification of Acetylsalicylic Acid Essays

Synthesis and Purification of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA or Aspirin) Introduction Salicylic acid is a phenol as well as a carboxylic acid. It can therefore undergo two different types of esterification reactions, creating an ester either with the hydroxyl or with the acid. In the presence of acetic anhydride, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin or ASA) is formed. Correspondingly, an excess of methanol will form methyl salicylate, which is also an analgesic. In this experiment, we will use the first reaction in order to prepare aspirin. Salicylic acid will not react significantly with acetic acid to produce aspirin. Acetic acid anhydride, however, is more reactive than acetic acid because its acetate group (CH3CO2-1) is a much better leaving group than the HO-1 from the acetic acid. The reaction has one complication, however, in that an esterification can occur between the phenol and acid portion of adjacent salicylic acid molecules. Further, more molecules can bind to the remaining free substituents on these molecules to create a macromolecule, or polymer. The polymer is formed as a by-product. Acetylsalicylic acid will react with sodium bicarbonate to form a water- soluble sodium salt, whereas the polymer remains insoluble. This difference will be used to purify the aspirin product. The most likely impurity in the final product is salicylic acid, which can be either unconsumed reactant, or the result of hydrolysis of the aspirin product. Salicylic acid is removed during the purification steps as well. Salicylic acid, like most phenols, forms a highly colored complex with ferric chloride, and is easily detected. Aspirin does not form the colored complex because the hydroxyl has been acetylated. [pic] Background Reading McMurry, J., Organic Chemistry, 8th Ed., pp 830 and 835 (7th Ed, pp 802 & 806-7). J. Beran, Lab Manual for Principles of General Chemistry, 9th and 8th Ed., Experiment 19, pg 231. Key Words phenol, carboxylic acid, ester, acid anhydride, macromolecule Compound, Reaction, and Yield Data Provide systematic names for the reactant and product in the substance section. Provide tabulated and experimental melting ranges for product. Report mass and moles for the reactant and product, and calculate yield % on a molar basis. Mechanism The mechanism is called nucleophilic acyl substitution. It is similar, but not identical, to the hydrolysis on pg 830 in McMurry 8e. The electrophile is an acid anhydride, not an acid chloride. The entering nucleophile is salicylic acid (its phenol O), not water. On the resulting tetrahedral intermediate, the H from salicylic acid moves to the middle O on the anhydride. Finally, the leaving group is acetic acid, rather than chloride. No base is involved. Provide structures of all intermediates in your lab report. Substances 2.0 g salicylic acid 5.0 mL acetic anhydride 5 drops concentrated H2SO4 25 ml saturated NaHCO3(aq) 3.5 mL concentrated HCl Apparatus one 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask 70-mm filter paper and Buchner funnel 250-mL or 500-ml vacuum flask Procedure Part A: Synthesis 1. Weigh 2.0 g of salicylic acid crystals. Place in a 125-ml Erlenmeyer flask. 2. In a hood, slowly add 5.0 ml of acetic anhydride and 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid to the flask Caution - Concentrated H2SO4 solutions are corrosive and cause acid burns. Carboxylic acid anhydrides are corrosive and extremely hygroscopic. They will cause burns, and they have a strong vinegar-like odor. Use gloves and avoid all contact with skin, eyes, and nose. Perform entire step in fume hood. 3. Swirl the flask gently until the salicylic acid has completely dissolved. If mixture solidifies completely, proceed to step 4. 4. Heat the flask in a boiling water bath (100 oC) for a minimum of 10 minutes. Clamp the flask to a stand so that it does not fall over into the water bath. 5. Allow the flask to cool slightly, and then place in an ice bath to crystallize the acetylsalicylic acid. If necessary, gently scratch the bottom of the flask with a glass rod (to initiate crystal formation on microscopic glass particles). 6. After crystals have formed, add 50 ml of DI water, and cool the mixture in an ice bath. Do not add water until crystallization is complete. Also, place a beaker of DI water in the ice bath and cool to use in later steps. 7. Collect the product by vacuum filtration using a 70-mm filter paper and Buchner funnel. The filtrate can be used to rinse the Erlenmeyer flask repeatedly until all of the crystals have been collected. 8. Rinse the crystals collected in the funnel with 5 - 10 ml of 5 oC DI water. Then, apply vacuum to the crystals for 30 seconds to remove all of the

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Brain Gym; Exercises

Brain Gym; Exercises Brain Gym exercises are exercises designed to help the brain function better during the learning process. As such, you can think of Brain Gym exercises as part of the overall theory of multiple intelligence. These exercises are based on the idea that simple physical exercise helps blood flow to the brain and can help improve the learning process by making sure the brain stays alert. Students can use these simple exercises on their own, and teachers can use them in class to help keep energy levels up throughout the day. These simple exercises are based on the copyrighted work of Paul E. Dennison, Ph.D., and Gail E. Dennison. Brain Gym  is a registered trademark of Brain Gym  International. I first encountered Brain Gym in Smart Moves, a best-selling book written by Carla Hannaford, Ph.D. Dr. Hannaford states that our bodies are very much a part of all our learning, and learning is not an isolated brain function. Every nerve and cell is a network contributing to our intelligence and our learning capability. Many educators have found this work quite helpful in improving overall concentration in class. Introduced here, you will find four basic Brain Gym exercises which implement the ideas developed in Smart Moves and can be used quickly in any classroom. Below is a series of movements called PACE. They are surprisingly simple, but very effective! Everyone has a unique PACE and these activities will help both teacher and student become positive, active, clear and energetic for learning. For colorful, fun PACE and Brain Gym ® supplies contact the Edu-Kinesthetics on-line bookstore at Braingym. Drink Water As Carla Hannaford says, Water comprises more of the brain (with estimates of 90%) than of any other organ of the body. Having students drink some water before and during class can help grease the wheel. Drinking water is very important before any stressful situation - tests! - as we tend to perspire under stress, and de-hydration can effect our concentration negatively. Brain Buttons Put one hand so that there is as wide a space as possible between the thumb and index finger.Place your index and thumb into the slight indentations below the collar bone on each side of the sternum. Press lightly in a pulsing manner.At the same time put the other hand over the navel area of the stomach. Gently press on these points for about 2 minutes. Cross Crawl Stand or sit. Put the right hand across the body to the left knee as you raise it, and then do the same thing for the left hand on the right knee just as if you were marching.Just do this either sitting or standing for about 2 minutes. Hook Ups Stand or sit. Cross the right leg over the left at the ankles.Take your right wrist and cross it over the left wrist and link up the fingers so that the right wrist is on top.Bend the elbows out and gently turn the fingers in towards the body until they rest on the sternum (breast bone) in the center of the chest. Stay in this position.Keep the ankles crossed and the wrists crossed and then breathe evenly in this position for a few minutes. You will be noticeably calmer after that time. More Whole Brain Techniques and Activities Have you had any experience using whole brain, NLP, Suggestopedia, Mind Maps or the like? Would you like to know more? Join the discussion in the forum. Using Music in the Classroom Six years ago researchers reported that people scored better on a standard IQ test after listening to Mozart. You would be surprised at how much music can also help  English learners. A visual explanation of the different parts of the brain, how they work and an example ESL EFL exercise employing the specific area. The use of colored pens to help the right brain remember patterns. Each time you use the pen it reinforces the learning process. Helpful Drawing Hints A picture paints a thousand words - Easy techniques to make quick sketches that will help any artistically challenged teacher - like myself! - use drawings on the board to encourage and stimulate class discussion. Suggestopedia: Lesson Plan Introduction and  lesson plan to a concert using the suggestopedia approach to effective/affective learning.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Calculating Enthalpy Changes Using Hesss Law

Calculating Enthalpy Changes Using Hess's Law Hesss Law, also known as Hesss Law of Constant Heat Summation, states that the total enthalpy of a chemical reaction is the sum of the enthalpy changes for the steps of the reaction. Therefore, you can find enthalpy change by breaking a reaction into component steps that have known enthalpy values. This example problem demonstrates strategies for  how to use Hesss Law to find the enthalpy change of a reaction using enthalpy data from similar reactions. Hess's Law Enthalpy Change Problem What is the value for ΔH for the following reaction?CS2(l) 3 O2(g) → CO2(g) 2 SO2(g)Given:C(s) O2(g) → CO2(g); ΔHf -393.5 kJ/molS(s) O2(g) → SO2(g); ΔHf -296.8 kJ/molC(s) 2 S(s) → CS2(l); ΔHf 87.9 kJ/mol Solution Hesss law says the total enthalpy change does not rely on the path taken from beginning to end. Enthalpy can be calculated in one grand step or multiple smaller steps.To solve this type of problem, we need to organize the given chemical reactions where the total effect yields the reaction needed. There are a few rules that must be followed when manipulating a reaction. The reaction can be reversed. This will change the sign of ΔHf.The reaction can be multiplied by a constant. The value of ΔHf must be multiplied by the same constant.Any combination of the first two rules may be used. Finding a correct path is different for each Hesss law problem and may require some trial and error. A good place to start is to find one of the reactants or products where there is only one mole in the reaction.We need one CO2, and the first reaction has one CO2 on the product side.C(s) O2(g) → CO2(g), ΔHf -393.5 kJ/molThis gives us the CO2 we need on the product side and one of the O2 moles we need on the reactant side.To get two more O2 moles, use the second equation and multiply it by two. Remember to multiply the ΔHf by two as well.2 S(s) 2 O2(g) → 2 SO2(g), ΔHf 2(-326.8 kJ/mol)Now we have two extra S and one extra C molecule on the reactant side we dont need. The third reaction also has two S and one C on the reactant side. Reverse this reaction to bring the molecules to the product side. Remember to change the sign on ΔHf.CS2(l) → C(s) 2 S(s), ΔHf -87.9 kJ/molWhen all three reactions are added, the extra two sulfur and one extra c arbon atoms are canceled out, leaving the target reaction. All that remains is adding up the values of ΔHf.ΔH -393.5 kJ/mol 2(-296.8 kJ/mol) (-87.9 kJ/mol)ΔH -393.5 kJ/mol - 593.6 kJ/mol - 87.9 kJ/molΔH -1075.0 kJ/molAnswer:  The change in enthalpy for the reaction is -1075.0 kJ/mol. Facts About Hess's Law Hesss Law takes its name from Russian chemist and physician Germain Hess. Hess investigated thermochemistry and published his law of thermochemistry in 1840.To apply Hesss Law, all of the component steps of a chemical reaction need to occur at the same temperature.Hesss Law may be used to calculate  entropy and Gibbs energy in addition to enthalpy.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Democracy, Equality, and the Supreme Court Essay

Democracy, Equality, and the Supreme Court - Essay Example Our regular elections work to keep the government in check as special interests, elected officials, political groups, and lobbyists jockey for the inside track at making laws and enacting policy. As these differing political and social forces meet, our civil society demands that their disagreements be settled peacefully and that the participants will honor the settlement. The real power of America's Democracy does not lie in the people, elected officials, special interests, or lobby groups. Our rule lies in our body of law and the constitution. Over the centuries, laws, rights, and freedoms have been challenged and debated. The US Supreme Court, the highest arbitrator in the land, has been the seat of responsibility for progress and the expression of these freedoms. Our individual and collective rights are protected and directed by the decisions made by the Court. We can measure and view our nation's progress by looking at the history of our Democracy through the court's decisions. The case of Marbury vs. Madison set the precedent that the Supreme Court would be the ultimate and final voice in constitutional questions and could void any law seen as contrary to the constitution. The court was further granted the power to determine the legality of the actions of the various branches of government and laid the foundation for the court's power, as well as our belief in a system guided by law and not men. Though the case was initiated over rather insignificant quarrels among the Republicans and Federalists, its effect has been paramount and enduring. Marbury vs, Madison has been the basis for bringing other landmark cases before the Supreme Court. The court had laid the groundwork as an arena to fight for individual rights as granted by the constitution. The case of Derd Scott vs. Sandford is an interesting case in that it was hoped that the court's decision would diminish further debate on the slavery issue. However, the court's finding that states could not outlaw slavery further divided the nation and led to the Civil War. Through great political pressure and deep differences, the court ruled that the constitution did not provide protection from slavery. This was not the failing of an unsympathetic court, it was a shortcoming in the constitution. But our founders had made provisions for the constitution to be fixed as the future would dictate. The decision ultimately led to the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments which constitutionally guaranteed citizenship and equal rights for African-Americans and former slaves. Other decisions by the court have been viewed by history as contrary to freedom and liberty. In some of these cases, the court has overturned a previous ruling as changing times have dictated. Two such cases were Plessey vs. Ferguson and Brown vs. Board of Education. Plessey vs. Ferguson argued for definition of equality as guaranteed by the 14th amendment. The case was brought when Plessey, a Louisiana black, was arrested for violating the Separate Car Act. He had challenged the law that legalized segregation in public transportation and elsewhere. The court upheld Louisiana's segregationist laws under a finding that came to be known as